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Minnesota

JURISDICTIONAL END OF MARRIAGE DATE: Date of Dissolution-preferred. If there is no Dissolution Date use current date.

STATE TYPE FOR PENSION EVALUATION: Minnesota is an "equitable distribution" state. Minnesota is an equitable distribution state. This means that the court will divide the marital property between the parties as it deems equitable and just, after setting aside to each spouse the separate property of each. Factors the court considers in dividing the property between the parties include:

1. The economic circumstances of the parties at the time of the division of property 2. The contribution of each spouse to the marital estate 3. The value of the non-marital property set apart to each spouse 4. The conduct of the parties during the marriage, and 5. Custodial arrangements for minor children.

[Minnesota Statutes Annotated; Chapter 518.58].


MINN. STAT. § 513.075

Cohabitation; property and financial agreements.

If sexual relations between the parties are contemplated, a contract between a man and a woman who are living together in this state out of wedlock, or who are about to commence living together in this state out of wedlock, is enforceable as to terms concerning the property and financial relations of the parties only if:

(1) the contract is written and signed by the parties, and

(2) enforcement is sought after termination of the relationship.

MINN. STAT. § 518.54

Definitions.

* * *

Subd. 5. Marital property; exceptions. "Marital property" means property, real or personal, including vested public or private pension plan benefits or rights, acquired by the parties, or either of them, to a dissolution, legal separation, or annulment proceeding at any time during the existence of the marriage relation between them, or at any time during which the parties were living together as husband and wife under a purported marriage relationship which is annulled in an annulment proceeding, but prior to the date of valuation under section 518.58, subdivision 1. All property acquired by either spouse subsequent to the marriage and before the valuation date is presumed to be marital property regardless of whether title is held individually or by the spouses in a form of coownership such as joint tenancy, tenancy in common, tenancy by the entirety, or community property. Each spouse shall be deemed to have a common ownership in marital property that vests not later than the time of the entry of the decree in a proceeding for dissolution or annulment. The extent of the vested interest shall be determined and made final by the court pursuant to section 518.58. If a title interest in real property is held individually by only one spouse, the interest in the real property of the nontitled spouse is not subject to claims of creditors or judgment or tax liens until the time of entry of the decree awarding an interest to the nontitled spouse. The presumption of marital property is overcome by a showing that the property is nonmarital property.

"Nonmarital property" means property real or personal, acquired by either spouse before, during, or after the existence of their marriage, which

(a) is acquired as a gift, bequest, devise or inheritance made by a third party to one but not to the other spouse;

(b) is acquired before the marriage;

(c) is acquired in exchange for or is the increase in value of property which is described in clauses (a), (b), (d), and (e);

(d) is acquired by a spouse after the valuation date; or

(e) is excluded by a valid antenuptial contract.

Subd. 6. Income. "Income" means any form of periodic payment to an individual including, but not limited to, wages, salaries, payments to an independent contractor, workers' compensation, unemployment benefits, annuity, military and naval retirement, pension and disability payments. Benefits received under Title IV-A of the Social Security Act and chapter 256J are not income under this section.

* * *

Subd. 10. Pension plan benefits or rights. "Pension plan benefits or rights" means a benefit or right from a public or private pension plan accrued to the end of the month in which marital assets are valued, as determined under the terms of the laws or other plan document provisions governing the plan, including section 356.30.

Subd. 11. Public pension plan. "Public pension plan" means a pension plan or fund specified in section 356.20, subdivision 2, or 356.30, subdivision 3, the deferred compensation plan specified in section 352.96, or any retirement or pension plan or fund, including a supplemental retirement plan or fund, established, maintained, or supported by a governmental subdivision or public body whose revenues are derived from taxation, fees, assessments, or from other public sources.

Subd. 12. Private pension plan. "Private pension plan" means a plan, fund, or program maintained by an employer or employee organization that provides retirement income to employees or results in a deferral of income by employees for a period extending to the termination of covered employment or beyond.

MINN. STAT. § 518.58

Division of marital property.

Subdivision 1. General. Upon a dissolution of a marriage, an annulment, or in a proceeding for disposition of property following a dissolution of marriage by a court which lacked personal jurisdiction over the absent spouse or lacked jurisdiction to dispose of the property and which has since acquired jurisdiction, the court shall make a just and equitable division of the marital property of the parties without regard to marital misconduct, after making findings regarding the division of the property. The court shall base its findings on all relevant factors including the length of the marriage, any prior marriage of a party, the age, health, station, occupation, amount and sources of income, vocational skills, employability, estate, liabilities, needs, opportunity for future acquisition of capital assets, and income of each party. The court shall also consider the contribution of each in the acquisition, preservation, depreciation or appreciation in the amount or value of the marital property, as well as the contribution of a spouse as a homemaker. It shall be conclusively presumed that each spouse made a substantial contribution to the acquisition of income and property while they were living together as husband and wife. The court may also award to either spouse the household goods and furniture of the parties, whether or not acquired during the marriage. The court shall value marital assets for purposes of division between the parties as of the day of the initially scheduled prehearing settlement conference, unless a different date is agreed upon by the parties, or unless the court makes specific findings that another date of valuation is fair and equitable. If there is a substantial change in value of an asset between the date of valuation and the final distribution, the court may adjust the valuation of that asset as necessary to effect an equitable distribution.

Subd. 1a. Transfer, encumbrance, concealment, or disposition of marital assets. During the pendency of a marriage dissolution, separation, or annulment proceeding, or in contemplation of commencing a marriage dissolution, separation, or annulment proceeding, each party owes a fiduciary duty to the other for any profit or loss derived by the party, without the consent of the other, from a transaction or from any use by the party of the marital assets. If the court finds that a party to a marriage, without consent of the other party, has in contemplation of commencing, or during the pendency of, the current dissolution, separation, or annulment proceeding, transferred, encumbered, concealed, or disposed of marital assets except in the usual course of business or for the necessities of life, the court shall compensate the other party by placing both parties in the same position that they would have been in had the transfer, encumbrance, concealment, or disposal not occurred. The burden of proof under this subdivision is on the party claiming that the other party transferred, encumbered, concealed, or disposed of marital assets in contemplation of commencing or during the pendency of the current dissolution, separation, or annulment proceeding, without consent of the claiming party, and that the transfer, encumbrance, concealment, or disposal was not in the usual course of business or for the necessities of life. In compensating a party under this section, the court, in dividing the marital property, may impute the entire value of an asset and a fair return on the asset to the party who transferred, encumbered, concealed, or disposed of it. Use of a power of attorney, or the absence of a restraining order against the transfer, encumbrance, concealment, or disposal of marital property is not available as a defense under this subdivision.

Subd. 2. Award of nonmarital property. If the court finds that either spouse's resources or property, including the spouse's portion of the marital property as defined in section 518.54, subdivision 5, are so inadequate as to work an unfair hardship, considering all relevant circumstances, the court may, in addition to the marital property, apportion up to one-half of the property otherwise excluded under section 518.54, subdivision 5, clauses (a) to (d), to prevent the unfair hardship. If the court apportions property other than marital property, it shall make findings in support of the apportionment. The findings shall be based on all relevant factors including the length of the marriage, any prior marriage of a party, the age, health, station, occupation, amount and sources of income, vocational skills, employability, estate, liabilities, needs, and opportunity for future acquisition of capital assets and income of each party.

Subd. 3. Sale or distribution while proceeding pending. (a) If the court finds that it is necessary to preserve the marital assets of the parties, the court may order the sale of the homestead of the parties or the sale of other marital assets, as the individual circumstances may require, during the pendency of a proceeding for a dissolution of marriage or an annulment. if the court orders a sale, it may further provide for the disposition of the funds received from the sale during the pendency of the proceeding. If liquid or readily liquidated marital property other than property representing vested pension benefits or rights is available, the court, so far as possible, shall divide the property representing vested pension benefits or rights by the disposition of an equivalent amount of the liquid or readily liquidated property.

(b) The court may order a partial distribution of marital assets during the pendency of a proceeding for a dissolution of marriage or an annulment for good cause shown or upon the request of both parties, provided that the court shall fully protect the interests of the other party.

Subd. 4. Pension plans. (a) The division of marital property that represents pension plan benefits or rights in the form of future pension plan payments:

(1) is payable only to the extent of the amount of the pension plan benefit payable under the terms of the plan;

(2) is not payable for a period that exceeds the time that pension plan benefits are payable to the pension plan benefit recipient;

(3) is not payable in a lump sum amount from pension plan assets attributable in any fashion to a spouse with the status of an active member, deferred retiree, or benefit recipient of a pension plan;

(4) if the former spouse to whom the payments are to be made dies prior to the end of the specified payment period with the right to any remaining payments accruing to an estate or to more than one survivor, is payable only to a trustee on behalf of the estate or the group of survivors for subsequent apportionment by the trustee; and

(5) in the case of public pension plan benefits or rights, may not commence until the public plan member submits a valid application for a public pension plan benefit and the benefit becomes payable.

(b) The individual retirement account plans established under chapter 354B may provide in its plan document, if published and made generally available, for an alternative marital property division or distribution of individual retirement account plan assets. If an alternative division or distribution procedure is provided, it applies in place of paragraph (a), clause (5).

MINN. STAT. § 519.11

Antenuptial and postnuptial contracts.

Subdivision 1. Antenuptial contract. A man and woman of legal age may enter into an antenuptial contract or settlement prior to solemnization of marriage which shall be valid and enforceable if (a) there is a full and fair disclosure of the earnings and property of each party, and (b) the parties have had an opportunity to consult with legal counsel of their own choice. An antenuptial contract or settlement made in conformity with this section may determine what rights each party has in the nonmarital property, defined in section 518.54, subdivision 5, clauses (a) to (d), upon dissolution of marriage, legal separation or after its termination by death and may bar each other of all rights in the respective estates not so secured to them by their agreement. This section shall not be construed to make invalid or unenforceable any antenuptial agreement or settlement made and executed in conformity with this section because the agreement or settlement covers or includes marital property, if the agreement or settlement would be valid and enforceable without regard to this section.

Subd. 1a. Postnuptial contract. (a) Spouses who are legally married under the laws of this state may enter into a postnuptial contract or settlement which is valid and enforceable if it:

(1) complies with the requirements for antenuptial contracts or settlements in this section and in the law of this state, including, but not limited to, the requirement that it be procedurally and substantively fair and equitable both at the time of its execution and at the time of its enforcement; and

(2) complies with the requirements for postnuptial contracts or settlements in this section.

(b) A postnuptial contract or settlement that conforms with this section may determine all matters that may be determined by an antenuptial contract or settlement under the law of this state, except that a postnuptial contract or settlement may not determine the rights of any child of the spouses to child support from either spouse or rights of child custody or parenting time.

(c) A postnuptial contract or settlement is valid and enforceable only if at the time of its execution each spouse is represented by separate legal counsel.

(d) A postnuptial contract or settlement is presumed to be unenforceable if either party commences an action for a legal separation or dissolution within two years of the date of its execution, unless the spouse seeking to enforce the postnuptial contract or settlement can establish that the postnuptial contract or settlement is fair and equitable. Nothing in this section shall impair the validity or enforceability of a contract, agreement, or waiver which is entered into after marriage and which is described in chapter 524, article 2, part 2, further, a conveyance permitted by section 500.19 is not a postnuptial contract or settlement under this section.

Subd. 2. Writing; execution. Antenuptial or postnuptial contracts or settlements shall be in writing, executed in the presence of two witnesses and acknowledged by the parties, executing the same before any officer or person authorized to administer an oath under the laws of this state. An antenuptial contract must be entered into and executed prior to the day of solemnization of marriage. A power of attorney may not be used to accomplish the purposes of this section.

Subd. 2a. Amendment or revocation. An antenuptial contract or settlement may be amended or revoked after the marriage of the parties only by a valid postnuptial contract or settlement which complies with this section and with the laws of this state. A postnuptial contract or settlement may be amended or revoked only by a later, valid postnuptial contract or settlement which complies with this section and with the laws of this state.

Subd. 3. Filing; recording. An antenuptial or postnuptial contract or settlement which by its terms conveys or determines what rights each has in the other's real property and sets forth the legal description of the real estate granted or affected by the agreement may be filed or recorded in every county where any real estate so described is situated, in the office of the county recorder for the county or in any public office authorized to receive a deed, assignment or other instrument affecting the real estate, for filing or recording.

Subd. 4. Effect of recording. Any antenuptial or postnuptial contract or settlement not recorded in the office of the county recorder or other public office authorized to receive the document, where the real property is located, shall be void as against any subsequent purchaser in good faith and for a valuable consideration of the same real property, or any part thereof, whose conveyance is first duly recorded, and as against any attachment levied thereon or any judgment lawfully obtained at the suit of any party against the person in whose name the title to the property appears of record prior to recording of the conveyance.

Subd. 5. Evidence; burden of proof. An antenuptial or postnuptial contract or settlement duly acknowledged and attested shall be prima facie proof of the matters acknowledged therein and as to those matters, the burden of proof shall be and rest upon the person contesting the same.

Subd. 6. Effective date. This section shall apply to all antenuptial contracts and settlements executed on or after August 1, 1979, and shall apply to all postnuptial contracts and settlements executed on or after August 1, 1994.

Subd. 7. Effect of sections 519.01 to 519.101. Nothing in sections 519.01 to 519.101, shall be construed to affect antenuptial or postnuptial contracts or settlements.

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